What Is a Casino?
A casino is a gambling establishment that offers an array of games of chance for its customers. It is not a charitable organization that gives away free money to its patrons, but rather a commercial enterprise that expects to make a profit on the millions of dollars of bets placed in its establishment. The profit is derived from a built-in advantage that is inherent in each game played and is known as the house edge. This edge is not large, but it is sufficient to enable casinos to make billions of dollars annually.
While gambling in some form has existed almost since the beginning of recorded history, casinos as we know them today developed in the 16th century. Though primitive protodice and carved six-sided dice can be found at archaeological sites, the concept of finding multiple ways to gamble under one roof did not develop until a gambling craze swept Europe. Italian aristocrats would gather in small private clubs called ridotti to place their bets. Although technically gambling was illegal, the aristocrats were not bothered by the law and their casinos thrived.
Modern casino gambling is a major industry and attracts millions of visitors from around the world. The casinos are essentially indoor amusement parks for adults. Musical shows, fountains, shopping centers and elaborate hotels help draw in the crowds, but gambling makes up the majority of the revenues that drive the casinos.
Many casinos have evolved into quasi-entertainment complexes, complete with restaurants, nightclubs and spas. Some have even added water slides and surf simulators to their list of attractions. The casino industry is booming and has become an important source of employment worldwide.
Casinos are found in all 50 states and in numerous foreign countries. They have also become increasingly popular with Internet users, with many online gaming sites offering a virtual alternative to traditional brick-and-mortar casinos.
A few states have strict anti-gambling laws, but they are easing their restrictions and have passed legislation permitting casinos to operate in their jurisdictions. Many casinos are also popping up on American Indian reservations, which are not subject to state regulations.
The casino industry has a long and complex history. The earliest casinos were run by the Mob, but after the Mafia lost control of its empire, it was replaced by real estate investors and hotel chains. These companies have deep pockets and can afford to keep mob interference to a minimum. Elaborate surveillance systems provide a high-tech “eye-in-the-sky” that allows security personnel to watch every table, doorway and window at once. They can be adjusted to focus on specific suspicious patrons by casino workers in a separate room filled with banks of security monitors. Casinos have also adopted new technology to supervise the games themselves. For example, casino poker tables now use electronic chips that track bets minute by minute so that the casinos are notified quickly of any anomaly. They are also using “chip tracking” to supervise roulette wheels, and monitoring the payouts of slot machines on a regular basis to detect any statistical deviation from their expected results.